Kotlin Microservices with Micronaut, Spring Cloud and JPA

Micronaut Framework provides support for Kotlin built upon Kapt compiler plugin. It also implements the most popular cloud-native patterns like distributed configuration, service discovery and client-side load balancing. These features allows to include your application built on top of Micronaut into the existing microservices-based system. The most popular example of such approach may be an integration with Spring Cloud ecosystem. If you have already used Spring Cloud, it is very likely you built your microservices-based architecture using Eureka discovery server and Spring Cloud Config as a configuration server. Beginning from version 1.1 Micronaut supports both these popular tools being a part of Spring Cloud project. That’s a good news, because in version 1.0 the only supported distributed solution was Consul, and there were no possibility to use Eureka discovery together with Consul property source (running them together ends with exception).

In this article you will learn how to:

  • Configure Micronaut Maven support for Kotlin using Kapt compiler
  • Implement microservices with Micronaut and Kotlin
  • Integrate Micronaut with Spring Cloud Eureka discovery server
  • Integrate Micronaut with Spring Cloud Config server
  • Configure JPA/Hibernate support for application built on top Micronaut
  • For simplification we run a single instance of PostgreSQL shared between all sample microservices

Our architecture is pretty similar to the architecture described in my previous article about Micronaut Quick Guide to Microservice with Micronaut Framework. We also have three microservice that communicate to each other. We use Spring Cloud Eureka and Spring Cloud Config for discovery and distributed configuration instead of Consul. Every service has backend store – PostgreSQL database. This architecture has been visualized on the following picture.

micronaut-2-arch (1).png

After that short introduction we may proceed to the development. Let’s begin from configuring Kotlin support for Micronaut.

1. Kotlin with Micronaut – configuration

Support for Kotlin with Kapt compiler plugin is described well on Micronaut docs site (https://docs.micronaut.io/1.1.0.M1/guide/index.html#kotlin). However, I decided to use Maven instead of Gradle, so our configuration will be slightly different than instructions for Gradle. We configure Kapt inside Maven plugin for Kotlin kotlin-maven-plugin. Thanks to that Kapt will create Java “stub” classes for each of your Kotlin classes, which can then be processed by Micronaut’s Java annotation processor. The Micronaut annotation processors are declared inside tag annotationProcessorPaths in the configuration section. Here’s the full Maven configuration to provide support for Kotlin. Besides core library micronaut-inject-java, we also use annotations from tracing, openapi and JPA libraries.

<plugin>
	<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
	<artifactId>kotlin-maven-plugin</artifactId>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
			<artifactId>kotlin-maven-allopen</artifactId>
			<version>${kotlin.version}</version>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>
	<configuration>
		<jvmTarget>1.8</jvmTarget>
	</configuration>
	<executions>
		<execution>
			<id>compile</id>
			<phase>compile</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>compile</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
		<execution>
			<id>test-compile</id>
			<phase>test-compile</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>test-compile</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
		<execution>
			<id>kapt</id>
			<goals>
				<goal>kapt</goal>
			</goals>
			<configuration>
				<sourceDirs>
					<sourceDir>src/main/kotlin</sourceDir>
				</sourceDirs>
				<annotationProcessorPaths>
					<annotationProcessorPath>
						<groupId>io.micronaut</groupId>
						<artifactId>micronaut-inject-java</artifactId>
						<version>${micronaut.version}</version>
					</annotationProcessorPath>
					<annotationProcessorPath>
						<groupId>io.micronaut.configuration</groupId>
						<artifactId>micronaut-openapi</artifactId>
						<version>${micronaut.version}</version>
					</annotationProcessorPath>
					<annotationProcessorPath>
						<groupId>io.micronaut</groupId>
						<artifactId>micronaut-tracing</artifactId>
						<version>${micronaut.version}</version>
					</annotationProcessorPath>
					<annotationProcessorPath>
						<groupId>javax.persistence</groupId>
						<artifactId>javax.persistence-api</artifactId>
						<version>2.2</version>
					</annotationProcessorPath>
					<annotationProcessorPath>
						<groupId>io.micronaut.configuration</groupId>
						<artifactId>micronaut-hibernate-jpa</artifactId>
						<version>1.1.0.RC2</version>
					</annotationProcessorPath>
				</annotationProcessorPaths>
			</configuration>
		</execution>
	</executions>
</plugin>

We also should not run maven-compiler-plugin during compilation phase. Kapt compiler generates Java classes, so we don’t need to run any other compilator during the build.

<plugin>
	<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
	<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
	<configuration>
		<proc>none</proc>
		<source>1.8</source>
		<target>1.8</target>
	</configuration>
	<executions>
		<execution>
			<id>default-compile</id>
			<phase>none</phase>
		</execution>
		<execution>
			<id>default-testCompile</id>
			<phase>none</phase>
		</execution>
		<execution>
			<id>java-compile</id>
			<phase>compile</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>compile</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
		<execution>
			<id>java-test-compile</id>
			<phase>test-compile</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>testCompile</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
	</executions>
</plugin>

Finally, we will add Kotlin core library and Jackson module for JSON serialization.

<dependency>
	<groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.module</groupId>
	<artifactId>jackson-module-kotlin</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
	<artifactId>kotlin-stdlib-jdk8</artifactId>
	<version>${kotlin.version}</version>
</dependency>

If you are running the application with Intellij you should first enable annotation processing. To do that go to Build, Execution, Deployment -> Compiler -> Annotation Processors as shown below.

micronaut-2-1

2. Running Postgres

Before proceeding to the development we have to start instance of PostgreSQL database. It will be started as a Docker container. For me, PostgreSQL is now available under address 192.168.99.100:5432, because I’m using Docker Toolbox.

$ docker run -d --name postgres -e POSTGRES_USER=micronaut -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=123456 -e POSTGRES_DB=micronaut -p 5432:5432 postgres

3. Enabling Hibernate for Micronaut

Hibernate configuration is a little harder for Micronaut than for Spring Boot. We don’t have any projects like Spring Data JPA, where almost all is auto-configured. Besides specific JDBC driver for integration with database, we have to include the following dependencies. We may choose between three available libraries providing datasource implementation: Tomcat, Hikari or DBCP.

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
	<artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
	<version>42.2.5</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>io.micronaut.configuration</groupId>
	<artifactId>micronaut-jdbc-hikari</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>io.micronaut.configuration</groupId>
	<artifactId>micronaut-hibernate-jpa</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>io.micronaut.configuration</groupId>
	<artifactId>micronaut-hibernate-validator</artifactId>
</dependency>

The next step is to provide some configuration settings. All the properties will be stored on the configuration server. We have to set database connection settings and credentials. The JPA configuration settings are provided under jpa.* key. We force Hibernate to update database on application startup and print all the SQL logs (only for tests).

datasources:
  default:
    url: jdbc:postgresql://192.168.99.100:5432/micronaut?ssl=false
    username: micronaut
    password: 123456
    driverClassName: org.postgresql.Driver
jpa:
  default:
    packages-to-scan:
      - 'pl.piomin.services.department.model'
    properties:
      hibernate:
        hbm2ddl:
          auto: update
        show_sql: true

Here’s our sample domain object.

@Entity
data class Department(@Id @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.SEQUENCE, generator = "department_id_seq") @SequenceGenerator(name = "department_id_seq", sequenceName = "department_id_seq") var id: Long,
                      var organizationId: Long, var name: String) {

    @Transient
    var employees: MutableList<Employee> = mutableListOf()

}

The repository bean needs to inject EntityManager using @PersistentContext and @CurrentSession annotations. All functions needs to be annotated with @Transactional, what requires the methods not to be final (open modifier in Kotlin).

@Singleton
open class DepartmentRepository(@param:CurrentSession @field:PersistenceContext val entityManager: EntityManager) {

    @Transactional
    open fun add(department: Department): Department {
        entityManager.persist(department)
        return department
    }

    @Transactional(readOnly = true)
    open fun findById(id: Long): Department = entityManager.find(Department::class.java, id)

    @Transactional(readOnly = true)
    open fun findAll(): List<Department> = entityManager.createQuery("SELECT d FROM Department d").resultList as List<Department>

    @Transactional(readOnly = true)
    open fun findByOrganization(organizationId: Long) = entityManager.createQuery("SELECT d FROM Department d WHERE d.organizationId = :orgId")
            .setParameter("orgId", organizationId)
            .resultList as List<Department>

}

4. Running Spring Cloud Config Server

Running Spring Cloud Config server is very simple. I have already described that in some of my previous articles. All those were prepared for Java, while today we start it as Kotlin application. Here’s our main class. It should be annotated with @EnableConfigServer.

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableConfigServer
class ConfigApplication

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    runApplication<ConfigApplication>(*args)
}

Besides Kotlin core dependency we need to include artifact spring-cloud-config-server.

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-cloud-config-server</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
	<artifactId>kotlin-stdlib-jdk8</artifactId>
	<version>${kotlin.version}</version>
</dependency>

By default, config server tries to use Git as properties source backend. We prefer using classpath resources, what’s much simpler for our tests. To do that, we have to enable native profile. We will also set server port to 8888.

spring:
  application:
    name: config-service
  profiles:
    active: native
server:
  port: 8888

If you place all configuration under directory /src/main/resources/config they will be automatically load after start.

micronaut-2-2

Here’s configuration file for department-service.

micronaut:
  server:
    port: -1
  router:
    static-resources:
      swagger:
        paths: classpath:META-INF/swagger
        mapping: /swagger/**
datasources:
  default:
    url: jdbc:postgresql://192.168.99.100:5432/micronaut?ssl=false
    username: micronaut
    password: 123456
    driverClassName: org.postgresql.Driver
jpa:
  default:
    packages-to-scan:
      - 'pl.piomin.services.department.model'
    properties:
      hibernate:
        hbm2ddl:
          auto: update
        show_sql: true
endpoints:
  info:
    enabled: true
    sensitive: false
eureka:
  client:
    registration:
      enabled: true
    defaultZone: "localhost:8761"

5. Running Eureka Server

Eureka server will also be run as Spring Boot application written in Kotlin.

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaServer
class DiscoveryApplication

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    runApplication<DiscoveryApplication>(*args)
}

We also needs to include a single dependency spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server besides kotlin-stdlib-jdk8.

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
	<artifactId>kotlin-stdlib-jdk8</artifactId>
	<version>${kotlin.version}</version>
</dependency>

We run standalone instance of Eureka on port 8761.

spring:
  application:
    name: discovery-service
server:
  port: 8761
eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: localhost
  client:
    registerWithEureka: false
    fetchRegistry: false
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://${eureka.instance.hostname}:${server.port}/eureka/

6. Integrating Micronaut with Spring Cloud

The implementation of distributed configuration client is automatically included to Micronaut core. We only need to include module for service discovery.

<dependency>
	<groupId>io.micronaut</groupId>
	<artifactId>micronaut-discovery-client</artifactId>
</dependency>

We don’t have to place anything in the source code. All the features can be enabled via configuration settings. First, we need to enable config client by setting property micronaut.config-client.enabled to true. The next step is to enable specific implementation of config client – in that case Spring Cloud Config, and then set target url.

micronaut:
  application:
    name: department-service
  config-client:
    enabled: true
spring:
  cloud:
    config:
      enabled: true
      uri: http://localhost:8888/

Each application fetches properties from configuration server. The part of configuration responsible for enabling discovery based on Eureka server is visible below.

eureka:
  client:
    registration:
      enabled: true
    defaultZone: "localhost:8761"

7. Running applications

Kapt needs to be able to compile Kotlin code to Java succesfully. That’s why we place method inside class declaration, and annotate it with @JvmStatic. The main class visible below is also annotated with @OpenAPIDefinition in order to generate Swagger definition for API methods.

@OpenAPIDefinition(
        info = Info(
                title = "Departments Management",
                version = "1.0",
                description = "Department API",
                contact = Contact(url = "https://piotrminkowski.wordpress.com", name = "Piotr Mińkowski", email = "piotr.minkowski@gmail.com")
        )
)
open class DepartmentApplication {

    companion object {
        @JvmStatic
        fun main(args: Array<String>) {
            Micronaut.run(DepartmentApplication::class.java)
        }
    }
	
}

Here’s the controller class from department-service. It injects repository bean for database integration and EmployeeClient for HTTP communication with employee-service.

@Controller("/departments")
open class DepartmentController(private val logger: Logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(DepartmentController::class.java)) {

    @Inject
    lateinit var repository: DepartmentRepository
    @Inject
    lateinit var employeeClient: EmployeeClient

    @Post
    fun add(@Body department: Department): Department {
        logger.info("Department add: {}", department)
        return repository.add(department)
    }

    @Get("/{id}")
    fun findById(id: Long): Department? {
        logger.info("Department find: id={}", id)
        return repository.findById(id)
    }

    @Get
    fun findAll(): List<Department> {
        logger.info("Department find")
        return repository.findAll()
    }

    @Get("/organization/{organizationId}")
    @ContinueSpan
    open fun findByOrganization(@SpanTag("organizationId") organizationId: Long): List<Department> {
        logger.info("Department find: organizationId={}", organizationId)
        return repository.findByOrganization(organizationId)
    }

    @Get("/organization/{organizationId}/with-employees")
    @ContinueSpan
    open fun findByOrganizationWithEmployees(@SpanTag("organizationId") organizationId: Long): List<Department> {
        logger.info("Department find: organizationId={}", organizationId)
        val departments = repository.findByOrganization(organizationId)
        departments.forEach { it.employees = employeeClient.findByDepartment(it.id) }
        return departments
    }

}

It is worth to take a look on HTTP client implementation. It has been discussed in the details in my last article about Micronaut Quick Guide to Microservice with Micronaut Framework.

@Client(id = "employee-service", path = "/employees")
interface EmployeeClient {

	@Get("/department/{departmentId}")
	fun findByDepartment(departmentId: Long): MutableList<Employee>
	
}

You can run all the microservice using IntelliJ. You may also build the whole project with Maven using mvn clean install command, and then run them using java -jar command. Thanks to maven-shade-plugin applications will be generated as uber jars. Then run them in the following order: config-service, discovery-service and microservices.

$ java -jar config-service/target/config-service-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
$ java -jar discovery-service/target/discovery-service-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
$ java -jar employee-service/target/employee-service-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
$ java -jar department-service/target/department-service-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
$ java -jar organization-service/target/organization-service-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

After you may take a look on Eureka dashboard available under address http://localhost:8761 to see the list of running services. You may also perform some tests by running HTTP API methods.

micronaut-2-3

Summary

The sample applications source code is available on GitHub in the repository sample-micronaut-microservices in the branch kotlin. You can refer to that repository for more implementation details that has not been included in the article.

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Author: Piotr Mińkowski

IT Architect, Java Software Developer

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